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(Compare Holocaust art 1933-45.) It is a political or historical statement.
Thus the difficulty for Conceptualism is to show how it qualifies as art, as opposed to entertainment, theatre, or political commentary.
Moreover its insistence on being labelled "art" - traditionally a bourgeois event - sits awkwardly alongside its anti-establishment ethic.
Performance now includes events and "happenings" by visual artists, poets, musicians, film makers, video artists and so on.
Contemporary artists associated with this genre include the pioneer Allan Kaprow (1927-2006), Yves Klein (1928-62), Gilbert & George (b.1943, 1942), and the extraordinary Joseph Beuys (1921-86), who created the innovative performance How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965).
Another innovative artist is the Korean-American Nam June Paik (1932-2006), who began in performance art before working with televisions and video, and thereafter installations.
Emerging in America and Europe in the early 1960s, Performance art is an experimental art form inspired by Conceptual art, as well as Dada, Futurism, the Bauhaus and (in America) the Black Mountain College.
Indeed it does, but frankly it doesn't turn the shoes into a work of art, or indeed any type of artistic statement.
Conceptual art has the ability to deliver ideas quite powerfully, hence it has served as a popular vehicle for socio-political comment.
In addition, by downplaying the need for any painterly or sculptural skills - indeed, for any craftsmanship at all - it retains a subversive edge by challenging the entire tradition of a work of art as a unique and valuable object.
Fluxus was an avant-garde group of artists (its name means "flowing" in Latin) led by the Lithuanian-born art theorist George Maciunas (1931-78), which first appeared in Germany before spreading to other European capitals and then New York City, which became the centre of its activities.
Its stated aims - a confusing mixture of "revolutionary" and "anti-art" art forms - carried on the traditions of Dada, focusing on Happenings (known as Aktions in Germany), and various types of street art.
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It was associated with artists like Robert Indiana (b.1928), Jasper Johns (b.1930), On Kawara (1932-2014), Barbara Kruger (b.1945) and Christopher Wool (b.1955).